Order Disease Process Discussion
If your colleagues’ posts influenced your understanding of these concepts, be sure to share how and why. Include additional insights you gained.
If you think your colleagues might have misunderstood these concepts, offer your alternative perspective and be sure to provide an explanation for them. Include resources to support your perspective.
Discussion post reply 1
The agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents.
According to Stahl (2013), the agonist spectrum goes from full agonist to partial agonist, by way of antagonist to inverse agonist. Agonist is a natural neurotransmitter or drug that binds to receptor sites to obtain the desired effect. Some drugs can be partial agonists or stabilizers because they may function to a lesser degree than the natural chemical. Antagonists are drugs that bind to the receptor sites in the presence of an agonist to block the desired effect therefore they cannot function without an agonist. An inverse agonist also works to block the desired stimulating effect from the agonist and can also decrease activity below the baseline without the presence of an agonist.
Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion-gated channels.
As stated by Lakna, (2022) Ion gated channels are ion channel proteins that allow the passage of ions such as chloride, calcium, potassium, and sodium upon binding with a neurotransmitter thus making it ionotropic, whereas G-coupled protein channels activate the messenger G protein to identify a great variety of ligands to open or close ion channels thus making it metabotropic. Ligand-gated ion channels couple with ion channels while G-protein coupled receptors do not.
In comparison, ligand-gated ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors are both postsynaptic receptors on the postsynaptic neurons. They liaise with ion channels to alter the cell membrane of the post-synaptic neuron through depolarization and hyperpolarization (Lakna, 2022).
Order Disease Process Discussion
Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.
Epigenetics is a process where genes are expressed and silenced by chromatin remodeling (Stahl 2013). This can be achieved by various chemical processes that are regulated by drugs, neurotransmitters, and environment. One such process is methylation. Methylation of histones and DNA can silence genes, while the reverse action demethylation of the same can activate the genes. When this process is affected by drugs, it controls whether genes are silenced or expressed. For example, an epigenetic change that turns off the gene that suppresses tumors can lead to uncontrolled cell multiplication (Rettner, 2013). According to Kanherkar, Bhatia-Day
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