Order Care For The Substance Abuse Assignment
· Elaborate on etiology, stressors, problems of addiction, dependence, and relapse in the U.S. currently.
· Discuss potential objective physical and mental examination findings when examining a client with a substance abuse issues with rationales.
· Discuss the neurobiological mechanism that underlies the addictive behavior reinforcing properties.
· What are the first-line pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy interventions with implications for monitoring (for alcohol and for opioid abuse).
Post your completed Word document to this discussion forum.
Use APA format with reference list (two to three books and/or articles).
Reply to at least two of your peers. In your replies, write a maximum two paragraphs for each reply with two to three sentences each that synthesizes one to two pieces of research.
Please refer to the Grading Rubric for details on how this activity will be graded.
The described expectations meet the passing level of 80%. Students are directed to review the Discussion Grading Rubric for criteria which exceed expectations
Order Care For The Substance Abuse Assignment
Substance abuse is defined as the hazardous or harmful use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs (World Health Organization, 2020). Substance abuse is characterized by overindulgence in an addictive substance. From 1999 to 2016, over 630,000 people have died from a drug overdose (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Substance abuse has become an epidemic in the United States. Increased numbers of individuals are dying every day due to overdoses. Approximately 66% of all drug overdose deaths in 2016 involved an opioid (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Barry, Sherman, and McGinty (2018) report that opiate overdoses are the leading cause of injury related death in the United States and contribute to reversals in life expectancy gains. On average, 115 Americans die daily from an opioid overdose (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Access to drugs is becoming easier and easier. Individuals are beginning drug use at younger ages. Drug addiction can destroy a person’s life. Substance abuse can lead to poor family dynamics, domestic violence, child abuse, vehicle accidents, loss of employment, and even death. The purpose of this discussion is to review the etiology of substance dependence, discuss objective physical and mental examination findings for a substance abuse patient, and discuss the neurobiological mechanism that underlies addictive behavior. This discussion will also review first-line pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions for substance abuse.
There are multiple factors that contribute to the etiology of substance use disorders including psychodynamic factors, genetic factors, and neurochemical factors. Sadock, Sadock, and Ruiz (2014) report that addiction has been described as a “brain disease”, and that the critical processes that transform voluntary drug-using behavior to compulsive drug use are changes in the structure and neurochemistry of the brain of the drug user. Drug availability, social acceptability, and peer pressures may be the major determinants of initial drug use; however, other factors such as personality and individual biology play a key role in how the effects of a given drug are perceived and the degree to which repeated drug use produces changes in the central nervous system (Sadock et al., 2014). Other factors, including the particular actions of the drug, may be primary determinants of whether drug use progresses to drug dependence, whereas still others may be important influences on the likelihood that drug use (1) leads to adverse effects or (2) leads to successful recovery from dependence (Sadock et al., 2014). As with treatment for other chronic diseases, treatment for addiction does not offer a cure. The chronic nature of addiction means that for some people relapse, or a return to drug use after an attempt to stop, can be part of the process (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2020). Recent drug relapse statistics show that more than 85% of individuals relapse and return to drug use within the year following treatment (American Addiction Centers, 2020). Researchers estimate that more than two thirds of individuals in recovery relapse within weeks to months of beginning addiction treatment (American Addiction Centers, 2020). These statistics reinforce the importance of addiction treatment programs and access to treatment.
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