Order Cardiovascular System Calculation Assignment

Order Cardiovascular System Calculation Assignment
Draw a Pressure-Volume Loop using Wiggers Diagram above for left ventricle of heart. Determine values needed to draw graph from Wiggers Diagram above. Label all necessary components as well as axes on graph below. [10 POINTS]
Calculate stroke volume (SV) using the information from Wiggers diagram. [2 POINTS]
Calculate cardiac output (CO) assuming a heart rate of 86 BPM. [2 POINTS]
Calculate mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) using information from Wiggers diagram. [3 POINTS]
Calculate total peripheral resistance (TPR) using the above answers. [2 POINTS]
Calculate stroke work (SW) and cardiac work (CW) using the above answers. Which of these values is most clinically useful? Why? What exactly does cardiac work tell us about heart function? [5 POINTS]
Ventricular compliance refers to relationship between volume and pressure as shown: C = △ V/△ P. (a) Derive an equation that can be used to calculate left ventricular wall compliance during one cardiac cycle—from start of ventricular systole through end of ventricular diastole. [2 POINTS] (b) Then, use the equation that you derived to determine left ventricular wall compliance using information from the Wiggers diagram. [2 POINTS]
Order Cardiovascular System Calculation Assignment
Assuming compliance you calculated is considered normal, how would compliance compare in a patient with an S3 heart sound? An S4 heart sound? What type of heart failure is each heart sound associated with? [4 POINTS]
Calculate the ejection fraction (EF) using information from the Wiggers diagram. Is this ejection fraction normal? Why or why not? What type of heart failure would be likely in this patient based on his ejection fraction? [4 POINTS]
What is shock? Briefly describe TWO (2) examples of shock, what causes each, and how they might clinically manifest. [5 POINTS]
What is the effect of exercise on the heart and blood vessels? [3 POINTS]
Describe the following factors that affect stroke volume: preload, afterload, and contractility. Describe the interdependent effects of each on stroke volume and overall cardiac function as depicted on your pressure-volume loop. You can illustrate using graphs or describe in words. [6 POINTS]
A. Shown on Wiggers diagram are the main components of a standard EKG tracing. [14 POINTS]
What intrinsic cardiac conduction system structure(s) is/are associated with the specific EKG waves, segments, or intervals below? Be specific.
At which intrinsic cardiac conduction system structure does the electrical impulse get slowed down significantly? Why does it get slowed down? What is the significance of this? Explain.
Describe what is happening electrically in the heart during each wave, segment, or interval found on an EKG tracing listed below.
P wave:
PR interval:
QRS Complex:
ST segment:
T wave:
U wave:
What electrolyte abnormality is associated with a U wave? [1 POINT] ___________________________
What ion(s) (Na , Ca2 , and K ) is associated with each segment shown in the figure below? [5 POINTS]
Phase 0: ________ Phase 1: ________ Phase 2: ________ Phase 3: ________
Phase 4: ________

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