Cognition, Language, and Creativity

Chapter 8 Cognition, Language, and Creativity
Coon, Introduction to Psychology, 15th Edition. 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated,
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
1
Gateway Theme
The origins of intelligent behavior lie in thinking, language, problem solving, and creativity.
Coon, Introduction to Psychology, 15th Edition. 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated,
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
One of the factors that truly separates human beings from non-human animals is our capacity for cognition. We apply the process of taking in information, using it, and directing it to solving problems and making decisions in ways that most other animals simply cannot. Further, our ability to use language in a very complex way is another criterion of the human species.
 
Our thought capacity is reflected in our creative mechanism, which allows us to create novel solutions by combining various mental elements in useful ways.
2
Gateway Questions
What is the nature of thought?
In what ways are images related to thinking?
What are concepts, and how are they learned?
What is language, and what role does it play in thinking?
What do we know about problem solving?
What is the nature of creative thinking?
How accurate is intuition?
How can creative and innovative thinking help me in my personal and professional life?
Coon, Introduction to Psychology, 15th Edition. 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated,
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
How Do We Think?
Experiential vs. reflective processing
Coon, Introduction to Psychology, 15th Edition. 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated,
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Cognition involves thinking, but also the ability to gain and deal with knowledge. It refers to internal processing of data that typically begins outside of us, and then be mentally manipulated in any number of ways.
 
Two types of processing include experiential and reflective processing. The first is automatic, unconscious, and effortless, while the second takes deliberateness and intentionality. Cognitive processes can move back and forth between these two types of processing, depending on how we focus our attention and effort.
4
Some Basic Units of Thought
Coon, Introduction to Psychology, 15th Edition. 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated,
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
If you think of thought (see what we did there?) as being a constructed puzzle, then what are the individual pieces? What are the units of thought?
1. Mental images
2. Concepts
3. Language
 
These small bits all work together to help our thinking process be more efficient and effective.
5
Creating and Using Mental Images (1 of 2)
Imagery in thinking
Coon, Introduction to Psychology, 15th Edition. 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated,
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Our brains seem to be wired to use visual information and process information in a visual way. Some research finds that even those who are blindthose who have never seenstill see activation in the visual cortices of the brain when thinking, supporting the idea that visual processing is an important part of how we think. If you remember our discussion of memory, youll recall that visual encoding helps us to remember more effectively.
 
We use our minds eye to create the mental images so that we can process information effectively. These visual processes include the following, which you should study carefully:
 
1 . Reverse vision talks about how creating mental images works with memory processes.
2. Kinesthetic imagery speaks to the interplay between our muscular movements and thinking processes.
6
Creating and Using Mental Images (2 of 2)
Imagery in the brain
Coon, Introduction to Psychology, 15th Edition. 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated,
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
This figure shows how the brain processes mental images in a manner that differs from processing visual sensory input. In other words, our minds eye works differently from our actual eyes.
7
Forming Concepts
Coon, Introduction to Psychology, 15th Edition. 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated,
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
A concept is a category of objects or events that share some common feature or attribute. When we form concepts, individual data points are analyzed in a positive (they belong) or negative (they dont belong) manner. This may happen above or below the level of awareness; that is, it may be an automatic or controlled process.
 
It is also important that we recognize that there are exceptions to some concept rules, much in the way that learning the rules of language also requires us to learn the exceptions to those rules. Sometimes what looks like an exception really is not, but just appears to be so. As an example, the inclusion of tomato in the concept of fruit is not a violation of the rules of that concept, but at first glance might appear to be.
8
Types of Concepts
Identifying prototypes
Coon, Introduction to Psychology, 15th Edition. 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated,
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
There are several different types of concepts of which you should be aware:
 
1. Relational conceptshow objects or features relate to each other
 
2. Disjunctive conceptseither/or concepts
 
3. Prototypesideal examples of a concept (e.g., an apple is a prototype of fruit)
 
(4) Faulty conceptsinaccurate examples

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code GRADE