BiologyLabs On-Line

Hemoglobin Lab
Assignment 1: Getting to Know HemoglobinLab: Sickle-Cell Disease
Chills, fever, headache, and vomiting are but a few symptoms of the disease called malaria. Malaria is caused by a protozoan, Plasmodium vivax, that lives in tropical countries and reproduces in a mosquito called the Anopheles mosquito. Plasmodium is transmitted to humans when an infected mosquito bites a human and sporozoites, an infectious stage of Plasmodium, enter the human bloodstream and travel to the liver. Sporozoites reproduce in liver cells and release progeny called merozoites into the bloodstream which infect red blood cells, reproduce, and rupture these cells to infect more red blood cells. Individuals who are heterozygous for sickle- cell disease have a higher resistance to malaria than wild type individuals. This resistance occurs because the fragile structure of sickled red blood cells interrupts the life cycle of Plasmodium.
1. Select the Blood Samples view on the input screen for HemoglobinLab. Scroll down the Select Case list and choose patient Miriam Dembele. Read Miriam’s case history. Note that her case history is consistent with increased resistance to malaria. Compare Miriam’s blood sample with the healthy control sample. Are there any obvious differences? Select the Microscope view and make note of any obvious differences in red blood cell structure. Do any of the red blood cells show phenotypic characteristics of sickle-cell disease? If so, approximately what percentage of her cells show these characteristics? ANSWER:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
2. Select the Gel Electrophoresis view to examine the electrophoretic migration pattern for the beta globin subunits of Miriam’s hemoglobin as compared with a control sample from a healthy patient. Is the migration pattern of Miriam’s hemoglobin indicative of a mutation in one of her globin genes? Is Miriam homozygous or heterozygous for this mutation? Explain your answer.
ANSWER:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
3. Select the Peptide Sequence view. Click the Find Difference button to identify the amino acid change in Miriam’s hemoglobin compared with the normal control hemoglobin. Differences in the amino acid sequence of Miriam’s hemoglobin protein compared with the normal protein will align at the far left of the screen. Which amino acid has been substituted for in Miriam’s gene? Note the position of this amino acid change. This will be important for identifying the position of the nucleotide change in the globin gene.
ANSWER:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
4. Select the Edit DNA Sequence view. Miriam’s globin gene sequence appears, compared with the normal, wild-type globin gene sequence. First, you will need to locate the DNA sequence with the triplet ATG that
indicates the position of the start codon that would appear on globin mRNA produced by transcription of this gene. You can do this either by scanning the gene by clicking on the double arrows or (more easily) by typing ATG in the Search window and hitting the return key. This will take you to the AT

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